Clay Models of Landforms

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Clay Models of Landforms (30 minutes) : Students are at seats

  1. Students will be at their desks and materials will be passed out/available in the back.
  2. Students will be given direction on how to set up their paper. (I will have a sheet upfront and model my directions as I go.)
  3. The students will fold their paper in sixth and write a landform definition in each section.  (Definitions will be made available up front.)
    • As students are folding, I will make a connection to math and ask the students “ What is sixths?”. I will model how to fold the paper upfront.
  4. Once the students complete the directions, I will then give them a stick of clay.
    • I will cut the stick in sixths so students will be able to make a model of all six landforms.

**If students finish early, students can color each section of the landforms. For example, color blue around the barrier island, green around the plain. This will help students reinforce and make connections of where these landforms are found. Students may need to wait for clay to dry before they color.

In additions, students should be allowed to work in pairs. I will be circulating the room and engaging students by asking them to explain the steep sides they created for mountains, or why they flattened their clay out for the valleys, or why their mountains were taller than their hills.

To view the full lesson, please see the blogpost: Landforms are Everywhere:4th Grade Lesson Plan Idea!

Landforms are Everywhere!

Essential Understanding: 

Landforms are all around us and are the natural features of Earth’s surface.

MA Framework Standard(s): 

 1. Earth and Space Science: Grade 3-5 (12): Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.2. Physical Science: Grade 3-5 (1): Differentiate between properties of objects (e.g., size, shape, weight) and properties of materials (e.g., color, texture, hardness).

Student Learning Objective(s):

Students will be able to identify the different types of landforms by responding with the physical hand motions that corresponds to the particular landform and picture. Students will be able to construct various clay models of the different landforms: mountains, hills, lakes, sand dunes, glaciers, and valleys that will visually represent the important features of each.

Interdisciplinary content area(s):  Math, Reading, Writing, Social Studies

Materials necessary for today’s lesson:

For Students For Teacher
Writing Notebooks, Clay, Poster Board (18 x 12) Pictures of landforms and definitions (6), Clay

Academic Vocabulary: 

-Landforms: Are all around us and are natural features of Earth’ surface-Valley: A low area surrounded by high land, such as hills or mountains

-Sand dunes: A hill of sand that is moved by wind

-Glacier: A large mass of ice that moves across land

-Hill: A raised area or mound of land

-Lake: A large body of water surrounded by land on all sides

-Mountains: An area of land that rises very high above the land around it. It is higher than a hill and sometimes has pointed tops

THE LEARNING ACTIVITY

Motivational and Review Procedures (the “hook”):

Today we have a very special activity that will allow us to take the information we learn today and transform it into our own version of clay models. We need to pay close attention since we will be building our own version of mountains, valleys, and lakes by using clay. I know we are very excited about this, but we must pay close attention since details matter! Before we work with clay, we first need to be sure we can differentiate the different type of landforms.Personal Story: Once Ms. Serao climbed a mountain (show picture). Has anyone else climbed a mountain? Have you ever swam in a lake? Do you know that mountains and lakes are landforms! Today, we are going to learn about landforms. (This is the first time ever teaching about landforms. The students may have some prior knowledge from third grade.)

Procedures to Accomplish Objectives:

 1. Direct Instruction: (20-25 minutes):  Today we are going to learn about landforms. Landforms are all around us and are Earth’s natural features of Earth’s surface. (Hold up landform definition) A landform is a natural feature of Earth’s surface. (look at word: land, form—shape)

  1. The first landform we are going to talk about are mountains. Mountains are steep, tall, and sometimes have pointy tops. Mountains are all over the United States and the world. One of the biggest mountains is called Mt. Everst.  Things that make a mountain special is the height and the pointy or non-pointy top. Did you know that you could climb a mountain? Ms. Serao climbed a mountain with her friends just last week!  To help us remember what a mountain is, I want you to copy (mirror) Ms. Serao. Repeat: a mountain is very high and sometimes has a pointed top. (Do hand gesture as speaking) Tell the students, whenever Ms. Serao says “mountain” I want you to respond by putting your hands over your head. Lets practice! Good!
  2. Second, lake: a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. What is a lake like? Can you think of some lakes you are familiar with? I remember your do-now from last week asked you to find lakes using a map of the United States.  (extra info: the Great Lakes in the United States include the following: Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie; lakes in Massachusetts: Lake Chaubunagungamaug). Show hand movement and have students repeat.
  3. Third hill: a raised area or mound of land.
  4. Fourth, valley: a low area surrounded by high land, such as hills or mountains. It is described as either being in a U shape or V shape. Valleys are all over the United States. There are usually next to mountains and hills. (extra info: five valleys in Massachusetts, one called Blackstone valley). Whenever Ms. Serao says valley, I want us to do this hand gesture (model). So repeat after me:  A valley is a low area surrounded by high land.
  5. Fifth, glacier: a large mass of ice that moves across land
  6. Sixth, sand dune: A hill of sand that is moved by wind

Depending on how students are responding and behaving, I will hand out pictures to some members of the class. To review, I will have students raise their picture card as other members in the class perform the action associated with the picture.

To review:

Students will be participating in total physical response (tpr) as each landform is being discussed on the rug in the back.

  1. Mountains: steep sides, tall, sometimes pointy tops are tall and pointed. “Class can you mirror Ms. Serao” Have students stand up and say mountains peaks are tall and pointed when putting their hands above their heads.
  2. Lake: a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides  (TPR: hands circled near body)
  3. Hill: a raised area or mound of land   (TPR: hands together in a dome shape)
  4. Sand Dune: a hill of sand that is moved by wind (TPR: wave of the hand)
  5. Valley: a low area surrounded by high land, such as hills and mountains (TPR: upside down V)
  6. Glacier: a large mass of ice that moves across land (TPR: hands put together as blocks that move)

I will then ask students to transition back to their seat. Once students are at their seats, I will start to explain the next activity. Materials will be ready to go on the table near the side.  Posters will be hung up on the whiteboard in the front of the class

2. Clay Models of Landforms (30 minutes): 

Students will be at their desks and materials will be passed out/available in the back. Students will be given direction on how to set up their paper. I will have a sheet upfront and model my directions as I go. The students will fold their paper in sixth and write a landform definition in each section.  Definitions will be made available up front. As students are folding, I will make a connection to math and ask the students “ What is sixths?” I will model how to fold the paper upfront.

Once the students complete the directions, I will then give them a stick of clay. I will cut the stick in sixths so students will be able to make a model of all six landforms. If students finish early, students can color each section of the landforms. For example, color blue around the barrier island, green around the plain. This will help students make the connection of where these landforms are found. Students may need to wait for clay to dry before they color.

Students will be allowed to work with their partner when creating the clay models.  I will be circulating the room and engaging students by asking them to explain the steep sides they created for mountains or why they flattened their clay out for the valleys or why their mountains were taller than their hills.

I expect students to at least write the six definitions in the proper place by the end of the lesson. Ideally, I want every student to complete at least 3 visual representations before the lesson ends. 

Clean up Materials: (3-4 minutes)

 Closing Procedures:

If time, I will have students repeat the hand gestures we learned at the beginning of class. Also, depending on class dynamic, I will showcase some students’ work.Questions for review:

  • What is a landform?
  • What are some properties (thing we can observe) about a mountain?
  • What are some properties we can observe about a hill/sand dune/lake/glacier?
  • How is a mountain different than a hill?
  • How is a lake different than a glacier? (See if students can make the connection to states of matter, which was a previous lesson taught)
  • How is a sand dune similar to a hill?
  • Have you ever climbed a hill?
  • Have you gone swimming in a lake?
  • Have you seen a mountain?

Summary Statement:  Wrap Up

Class, today we learned about landforms and talked about different types of landforms such as mountains, sand dunes, lakes, glaciers, and hills. We discussed the basic properties of each and are starting to understand that landforms are truly all around us. We were then able to apply the knowledge we learned to make clay models, which reinforced some of the observable differences among the examples we used. Next time, we will finish our clay models and discuss the four forces that cause landforms to change shape. I am proud of the way we were attentive during our activity and the way we behaved when dealing with clay. I am also impressed with how we cleaned up and treated our partners with respect! Great work!

Teaching Techniques:

Direct Instruction: The form of instruction that is displayed when orally explaining something. Teacher will explicitly state the definition of a landform as well as the six different types of landforms. Teacher will explicitly review the distinct properties of each.Indirect Instruction: The form of instruction that is displayed when the teacher becomes the supporter rather than the facilitator. This teaching technique is implemented when the students are working on their individual clay models and when the teacher is engaged in classroom discussion.

Experimental: Students will be using clay and will be able to answer questions with the class or a partner.

Interactive: Students will work with clay to visually represent the six different types of landforms. Students will also be asked to make real-world connections as well as interact with other classmates.

Learning Considerations:

Improving access to learning for all students(Hint: Consider UDL Principles) Associated Accommodations(s)/Modification(s)(Supports and Challenges)
Multiple Means of RepresentationVisual: Visual aids, such as pictures of landforms are used through out the lesson.

Auditory: Teacher will engage the class in classroom discussion

Kinesthetic: Teacher will use hand gestures/movements when teaching different types of landforms. For example, the teacher will raise her hands when talking about a mountain and then lower them when teaching about a valley.

Multiple Means of Expression

Visual: Students will express knowledge of landforms by building their own representation out of clay. Students will have poster labeled with the correct names and definitions.

Auditory: Students will be able to answer teacher discussions. Students will be able to talk with a partner. Students will participate in classroom discussion.

Kinesthetic: Students will work with clay to build their own visual representation of landforms.

Multiple Means of Engagement

  • Students will follow teacher in total physical response when learning about landforms
  • Students are working with clay and are able to create their own visual representation of landforms
  • Students will be able to work with a partner
  • Students will be able to execute choice in determining what landform to make first
  • Students will participate from different parts of the room
  • Students will not be sitting the entire time, instead students will be asked to move around
For students who need additional support:

  • Pictures and definitions will be made available on the board.
  • Students will be allowed to work with partners
  • Instructions will be modeled
  • Instructions will be repeated individually if necessary

For students who need to be challenged:

  • Students can add to the definition of each landform given by the teacher by noticing additional features of the landform and by making real-world connections (such as where this landform exists, mountains have a tip shaped point)

If extra time:

  • Students can do a quick write on their experience if they have visited any of the landforms we learned in class. I would encourage students to use the sensory words we have been reviewing in class. (What did you see, how did it smell, what did your hear etc).

EVALUATION

Assessment Plan:

I will assess student understanding….
Formative  During the lesson plan by:

  • What is a landform?
  • What are some properties (thing we can observe) about a mountain?
  • What are some properties we can observe about a hill/sand dune/lake/glacier?
  • How is a mountain different than a hill?
  • How is a lake different than a glacier? (See if students can make the connection to states of matter, which was a previous lesson taught)
  • How is a sand dune similar to a hill?
  • Have you ever climbed a mountain? How did you know it was a mountain?
  • Total Physical Response: Do students respond? Did students create their own hand motion? Does it accurately portray the features of the landform?
Summative  At the end of the learning opportunity by an exit ticket that asks any of the following questions:

  • What is a landform?
  • What are some properties (thing we can observe) about a mountain?
  • What are some properties we can observe about a hill/sand dune/lake/glacier?
  • How is a mountain different than a hill?
  • How is a lake different than a glacier? (See if students can make the connection to states of matter, which was a previous lesson taught
  • How is a sand dune similar to a hill?
  • What state of matter is ice? (previous lesson)
  • Where have you seen these landforms?
  • Do you know of any mountains, lakes, or hills in Massachusetts?

Means:

  • Clay models can also been used as a summative

Record Keeping Plan:

  • Keep a personal written record that will then be transferred into excel.

View a picture of the clay activity here: Clay Models of Landforms

What’s the “Matter”?

1. Essential Understanding:

Students will identify the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) and differentiate the properties of each. Solid: is matter that holds its own shape until a force changes it (ice, blocks, wood, plastic bags). Liquid: is matter that takes the shape of its container, but has no shape of its own (water, milk, juice). Gas: is matter that has no shape and spread out into space (water vapor, air, carbon dioxide).

2. MA Framework Standard(s): 

-Gr 3-5 Physical Science Standard 1: Differentiate between properties of objects (e.g. size, shape, weight) and properties of materials (e.g. color, texture, and hardness).-Gr 3-5 Physical Science Standard 2: Compare and contrast solids, liquids, and gases based on the basic properties of each of these states of matter.

Student Learning Objective(s): 

Students will be able to differentiate the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas by categorizing items in the room on the board. Students will be able to identify the properties found in 3 states of matter (liquid, solid, gas) by creating a top-down chart.

3. Interdisciplinary content area(s):  Science, Writing, Reading 

4. Materials necessary for today’s lesson: 

For Students For Teacher
Pencils, Paper, Science Binders Tea Pot, Bag of Ice, Water, Markers, Chart Paper, Print Outs of Pictures (Milk, Rock, and Steam), Cups

5. Academic Vocabulary: 

Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up spaceMass: The amount of matter in something

State: Is a form of matter. It is another property of matter

Property: Something about an object that can be observed or measured

Volume: The amount of space something takes up

Solid: Is matter that holds its own shape until a force changes it (ice, blocks, wood, plastic bags etc)

Liquid: Is matter that takes the shape of its container, but has no shape of its own (water, milk, juice etc)

Gas: Is matter that has no shape and spread out into space (water vapor, air, carbon dioxide)

THE LEARNING ACTIVITY

6. Motivational and Review Procedures (the “hook”):

Class meets on a rug in a circle Intro/Review of Matter (6-7 minutes): “Hello boys and girls! Today we are going to be scientists and pay special attention to the things all around us. Before we begin, can anyone remind me what we have been learning about in Science? (Matter-everything that has mass and takes up space) Yes, great! Can you point to objects in this room that are made of matter? (Great!) Can you give me examples of things that are not matter? (Sound, heat from a fire, emotions, thoughts). What can you tell me about matter? (All objects take up space. All objects take up mass. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass). Show pictures of print outs to class. First Picture: Milk: Is this Matter? (yes) Second Picture: Wood: Is this Matter? (yes)Third Picture: Steam: Is this Matter? (yes)

Review of Properties of Matter (6-7 minutes): Great Job! Show Picture 1 again.  “Class I want you to study this picture. Yesterday, Mrs. Peterson taught you about different properties of matter. Scientist learn about matter by making observations. A property describes how an object looks, feels, or acts. People describe objects in many ways using size, shape, colors, and textures. What are the following familiar objects? How can you describe them if you didn’t know what they were? Matter can be categorized in three special ways. Today we are going to learn about the 3 states of matter. To begin, we are going to watch a Brain Pop Video on States of Matter: http://www.brainpop.com/science/matterandchemistry/statesofmatter/

Classroom discussion of the video. A quick summary and review.

7. Procedures to Accomplish Objectives:

Explicit Instruction: 15-20 minutes Teacher will write on the board/chart paper and hold classroom discussion. Properties describe matter. A block of wood, milk, and air all have properties. All the material on earth is in three states-solid, liquid, and gas. The “state” of the matter refers to the group of matter with the same properties. In other words, you group the objects together according to their properties. State is another property of manner.

A state is a form of matter. Solid, liquid, and gas are the three states of matter. State is a property that tells about an object’s shape and volume. Volume is the amount of space something takes up. Lets look at Picture 1: What can you tell me about this picture? (picture of a solid). Picture 2: What can you tell me about this picture? (picture of a liquid). Picture 3: What can you tell me about this picture? (picture of gas).

Create a top-down chart:

Solid: Has a set shape and a set volume. Example: Ice

Liquid: Has a set volume but takes the shape of its container. Example: Water

Gas: Has no set shape or volume; a gas spreads out to fill space: Example: Steam

Solids

The wood block is solid. A solid has a certain size and shape. The wood block does not change size or shape. Other examples of solids are the computer, the desk, and the floor.

You can change the shape of solids. You change the shape of sheets of lumber by sawing it in half or burning it.

From wood to smoke

How might you change the shape of a piece of gum?

Liquids

Milk is a liquid. Milk is liquid matter. It has a size or volume. Volume means it takes up space. But milk doesn’t have a definite shape. It takes the shape of its container.

Liquids can flow, be poured, and spilled. Did you ever spill juice? Did you notice how the liquid goes everywhere and you have to hurry and wipe it up? The liquid is taking the shape of the floor and the floor is expansive limitless boundary (until it hits the wall). You can’t spill a wooden block. You can drop it and it still has the same shape.

What about jello and peanut butter?

You can spread peanut butter on bread, but peanut butter does not flow. It is not a liquid at room temperature. You have to heat peanut butter up to make it a liquid. When you or your mom makes jello, it is first a liquid. You have to put it in the refrigerator so that it becomes a solid. These are yummy forms of matter with properties of a liquid and a solid.

Gases

Run in place very fast for a minute. Do you notice how hard you are breathing? What you are breathing is oxygen. You need oxygen to live. That’s why you can only hold your breath for a certain amount of time.

You can’t see oxygen. It’s invisible. It is a gas. A gas is matter that has no shape or size of its own. Gases have no color.

Gases are all around you. You can feel gas when the wind blows. The wind is moving air. Air is many gases mixed together.

Where else can you find gas? In the inside of a balloon.

Activity: The Magic Teapot: Ice turns to Steam. 10-15 minutes

Start with ice: Have the students identify as a solid. Have students describe the properties. Ask students explain why it is a solid.

Have a glass of water. Have the students identify as a liquid. Have students describe the properties. Have students explain why it is a liquid.

Put the ice cubes and water in the teapot. Plug the teapot in. Soon, the students will see steam. Have the students identify the steam as a gas. Have students describes the properties of gas.

Then show the class the inside of the teapot once it cools off. Have the students’ notice that the ice changed into a liquid.

Writing Activity: (5-10 minutes)

Have the students go back to their seats and write about where they think the ice went. It magic! It disappeared!! Where did it go? (In case they need another example: When ice in your soda melts where does it go? What does it become?)

After, explicitly ask students to write down the three different states of matter on an exit ticket. Ask the students to give one example of each.

8. Closing Procedures:

What are the three states of matter?What are the properties of a Solid, Liquid, and Gas?

What are the differences between a Solid and a Liquid?

What are the differences between a Gas and a Liquid?

What are the differences between a Solid and a Gas?

What is an example of a Solid, Liquid, and Gas?

Summary Statement:  Wrap Up

(What will you say to summarize and conclude what you did today? Hint: Use vocabulary from the lesson when stating learning objectives met.)

4th graders, I am so proud of the way you paid attention! I was impressed when you were able to differentiate the three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas when we observed the properties of various items in the room. I also appreciated how the class was able to identify the properties of matter in our top-down chart.  Great job!

9. Teaching Techniques:

Direct Instruction: The form of instruction that is displayed when orally explaining something. Teacher will explicitly state the three states of matter. Teacher will explicitly review the distinct properties of each state.Indirect Instruction: The form of instruction that is displayed when the teacher becomes the supporter rather than the facilitator. This teaching technique is implemented when the students are working on top-down chart as a class and when they are at their desks writing.

Experimental: Students work as a class to identity the three states of matter. Students will use objects in the room and use pictures teacher brings in. Students will have a chance to answer various questions orally.

Interactive: Students will find objects around the room. Students will write on chart paper. Students will write on experience. Students will observe the ice turn to water and steam.

10. Learning Considerations: 

Improving access to learning for all students (Hint: Consider UDL Principles) Associated Accommodations(s)/Modification(s)(Supports and Challenges)
Multiple Means of RepresentationVisual: Writing properties on a top-Down Chart, pictures, tea pot, bag of ice, glass of water, steam from tea pot, brain pop video

Auditory: Teacher questions, student questions, classroom discussion

Kinesthetic: Tea pot example 

Multiple Means of Expression

Visual: Writing properties on a top-down chart, picture cards

Auditory: Answering teacher questions, talking with Partner

Kinesthetic: Writing on the board/chart, writing in notebook, feeling the ice and water

Multiple Means of Engagement

Students are working in partners and are working individually. Students see an animated clip at the beginning, and then have the opportunity to use items in the room as examples. Students have the opportunity to share thoughts on a chart. The activity is presented as “magic” since the ice disappears. What happens to the ice? Present it is a mystery to solve.

For students who need additional support:

  • Allow students to reference the top-down chart when writing
  • Allow students to work with a partner (Partner Share) when choosing an item in the classroom
  • Allow students to discuss with other students when needed
  • Teacher will repeat explicit instruction/definitions when needed
  • Students will be allowed to reference vocabulary sheet

For students who need to be challenged:

  • Have students continue the top-down chart and provide additional examples of solids, liquids, and gases.
  • Have students create a pictorial representation of the different types of properties found in solid, liquids, and gases.
  • Have students predict how matter changes from state to state.

EVALUATION

11. Assessment Plan:

I will assess student understanding….
Formative  During the lesson plan by:

  • Are students able to describe matter?
  • Are students able to give examples of matter?
  • Are students able to give examples of what is not matter?
  • Are students able to identify the three states of matter?
  • What are the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas?
  • What are the differences between a solid and a liquid?
  • What are the differences between a gas and a liquid?
  • What are the differences between a solid and a gas?
Summative  At the end of the learning opportunity by:

  • What are the three states of matter?
  • What are the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas?
  • What are the differences between a solid and a liquid?
  • What are the differences between a gas and a liquid?
  • What are the differences between a solid and a gas?
  • Writing Activity

Distributing an Exit Ticket: Write down the three different states of matter. Where did the ice go in the Magic Tea Pot experiment?

Means:

Exit Ticket and Writing Notebook

Record Keeping Plan:

Collect student writing and mark Exit Ticket in Excel